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我軍服役東風41后為何東風5B還在用暗藏一項優勢導彈
2020-01-11 18:30  www.konga9ja.com

  “东风”-5洲际弹道导弹是中国研制的第一代洲际地地战略导弹,于1965年开始研制,1971年首次试验,1980年5月18日全程飞行试验成功后,于1981年开始服役,“东风”-5型洲际导弹服役后,作为唯一的洲际打击力量,在我国的核威慑力量中很长一段时间内都占据主导地位,发挥着举足轻重的作用。

“"-5 Intercontinental Ballistic Missile "-"-5 Intercontinental Ballistic Missile ", the first generation of strategic ICBM developed by China, was developed in 1965, first tested in 1971, and after the successful flight test on May 18,1980, it began to serve in 1981.

  “东风”-5服役之后,中国开始在其基础上,借鉴国外洲际导弹最新技术,相继研制出“东风”-5A和“东风”-5B导弹,“东风”-5A采用新的火箭发动机,最大射程和打击精度都有了很大提升,“东风”-5B则开创性地发展了分导式多弹头技术,使导弹的突防能力大大增强。

After the “Dongfeng-5 service, China began to draw on the latest technology of intercontinental missiles from abroad, and developed" Dongfeng "-5A and "Dongfeng "-5B missiles one after another.

  “东风”-5B导弹采用二级液体燃料火箭发动机,采用固定发射井发射。作为战略导弹,“东风”-5系列导弹的性能参数一直没有公开,据国外军事专家推测,“东风”-5B全长米,弹径米,起飞重量183吨,采用二级液体燃料火箭发动机,最大射程15000千米(“东风”-5导弹为12000千米),可携带1枚3000公斤的威力为300-400万吨TNT当量的核弹头,或4~6枚分导核弹头(“东风-5B”),命中精度500——2000米。

The “easterly "-5B" missile is launched using a two-stage liquid fuel rocket engine and a fixed launch well. As a strategic missile, the performance parameters of the "Dongfeng "-5 series of missiles have not been disclosed, according to foreign military experts speculated that" Dongfeng "-5B full-length meters, bomb diameter meters, take-off weight of 183 tons, using a second-class liquid fuel rocket engine, the maximum range of 15000 km (" Dongfeng "-5 missile 12000 km), can carry a 3000 kg of power of 3-4 million tons of nuclear warhead, or TNT~4,6 sub-nuclear warhead (" Dongfeng-5B "), hit accuracy of 500-2000 meters.

  “东风”-5B导弹在设计上属于二级液体弹道导弹,第一级为四台发动机并联,第二级为单台发动机加姿态控制发动机。作为洲际导弹,“东风”-5B使用了大量先进的工艺和技术,导弹売体从铝镁合金更换为性能更好的铝铜合金,大幅度降低了结构重量。在“东风”-5导弹上,一级发动机采用的是大推力YF-20发动机,单台推力可达60吨,第二级发动机为YF-20的高空版本,使用大喷管增加了推力并显著提高了比冲。而“东风”-5A/B则进一步对第一、第二级发动机和研制末端修主动姿态控制发动机进行了改进,有数据显示二级发动机推力增加了23千牛。“东风”-5B导弹还使用了新的制导控制技术,包括高性能惯性气浮陀螺稳定平台和数字式弹载计算机,配合新的液压伺服系统,使得导弹的精度有了很大的提高。

The “easterly "-5B missile is designed to be a two-stage liquid ballistic missile with four engines in parallel and a single engine plus attitude control engine in the second stage. As an intercontinental missile,“ Dongfeng ”-5B uses a large number of advanced techniques and techniques, and the missile body of the missile changes from aluminum-magnesium alloy to better performance aluminum-copper alloy, which greatly reduces the structural weight. On the "Dongfeng "-5 missile, the first stage engine uses a large thrust YF-20 engine with a single thrust of up to 60 tons, and the second stage engine is a high altitude version of the YF-20, using a large nozzle to increase the thrust and significantly improve the specific thrust. while the “dongfeng ”-5a/b further improved the first and second stage engine and the development of the terminal repair active attitude control engine. some data showed that the second stage engine thrust increased by 23 000 ox. The "Dongfeng "-5B missile also uses new guidance and control technology, including high performance inertial air float gyro stabilization platform and digital projectile computer, combined with the new hydraulic servo system, so that the accuracy of the missile has been greatly improved.

  相较于“东风”-5和“东风”-5A,“东风”-5B最大的改进之处,就是分导式多弹头技术。这一点从东风“-5B导弹整流罩形状的变化也能看出端倪,东风”-5导弹的整流罩是一种典型的单弹头锥形整流罩,而“东风”-5B则是一种头部钝圆的圆锤型整流罩。这种整流罩可以为内部的弹头建立一个有恒定温度、湿度的空间,从而保证弹头的存放环境要求。此外,“东风”-5B的整流罩上方还设置有的平行分离式机构,这个装置使得导弹在导弹的初始阶段,就可以开始分离整流罩,这样既可以适应“东风”-5B导弹早期机动变轨的需要,也节省了导弹的载荷空间,最大限度携带更多弹头或者诱佴。

Compared with \"Dongfeng \"-5 and\" Dongfeng \"-5A, the biggest improvement of \"Dongfeng \"-5B is the sub-lead multi-warhead technology. This point can also be seen from the change in the shape of the Dongfeng \"-5B missile fairing,\" the Dongfeng \"-5 missile fairing is a typical single-warhead conical fairing, and \"Dongfeng \"-5B is a round-hammer fairing with a blunt head. This kind of fairing can establish a space with constant temperature and humidity for the internal warhead, thus ensuring the storage environment requirement of the warhead. In addition, there is a parallel split mechanism above the \"Dongfeng \"-5B fairing, which allows the missile to begin to separate the fairing at the initial stage of the missile, which cannot only meet the needs of the\" Dongfeng \"-5B missile's early maneuvering rail transition, but also save the load space of the missile and maximize the carrying of more warheads or decoys.

  国外根据该导弹的载荷推算,“东风”-5B大约能够携带4~6颗分导式弹头,这已经达到了“东风”-31AG新型洲际导弹的水平,同白杨M、民兵III洲际导弹的分导能力相比,也处于领先位置。“东风”-5B的分导式多弹头放置在有制导装置的母舱内,母舱由整流罩、末助推发动机、制导装置和释放装置等组成。在分弹头母舱与弹体分离后,末助推发动机开始工作,在制导装置作用下,按规定程序对母舱的姿态、速度和位置作精密调整,尔后释放装置开始工作,每释放一个弹头后,末助推发动机重新点火,调整速度矢量,校正弹道,再释放下一个弹头,直至把弹头释放完毕。

According to the load of the missile, the \"east wind \"-5B can carry about 4 or 6 sub-missile warheads, which has reached the level of\" east wind \"-31AG new intercontinental missile, and is also in the leading position compared with the intercontinental missile of poplar M and militia III. The \"Dongfeng \"-5B sub-guided multi-warhead is placed in a mother chamber with a guidance device, which consists of a rectifier hood, a terminal booster engine, a guidance device and a release device. After the separation of the sub-warhead cabin and the projectile body, the final booster engine starts to work, and the attitude, speed and position of the cabin are precisely adjusted according to the prescribed procedure under the action of the guidance device, and then the release device starts to work. After each warhead is released, the final booster engine re-ignits, adjusts the speed vector, corrects the trajectory, and releases the next warhead until the warhead is released.

  通过这种技术,可以“东风”-5B具有用1枚导弹攻击多个目标的显著特点,使导弹的投送效率大为提高,在相同核导弹数量的情况下,可大大增加核打击能力,使打击效率大为提高。此外,分导式多弹头导弹只需发展弹头数量,而无需增加运载工具和发射阵地,也就是说,维护几乎相同的导弹,也可成倍增加打击能力,这无疑使核力量的效费比保持在较高水平。更重要的是,因为分导式多弹头的轨道几乎各不相同,且弹头数量较多。当子弹头增加到一定程度时,就可使敌方的防御系统处于“饱和”状态,而无法拦截或全部拦截来袭弹头。在导弹防御技术不断发展的今天,具有分导能力“东风”-5B将成为其无法防御的“疆梦”,单凭这一点,“东风”-5B在我国战略打击力量中的地位就难以撼动。

Through this technology, Dongfeng-5B can have the remarkable characteristic of attacking multiple targets with one missile, which greatly improves the efficiency of missile delivery. Furthermore, guided multi-warhead missiles only need to develop the number of warheads, without the need to increase the number of delivery vehicles and launch positions, that is, the maintenance of almost identical missiles can also multiply the strike capacity, which undoubtedly keeps the efficiency ratio of nuclear forces at a high level. More importantly, the orbits of the sub-guided multi-warheads are almost different and the number of warheads is high. When the sub-warhead is increased to a certain extent, the enemy's defense system can be \"saturated\" state, and cannot intercept or all intercept the incoming warhead. With the continuous development of missile defense technology, Dongfeng-5B will become its defenseless \"Xinjiang dream \", and the position of Dongfeng-5B in China's strategic strike force will be difficult to shake.

  “东风”-5B和“东风”-41相比有一个最大的不同之处,运载车上没有发射筒,导弹是直接裸露在外的,此外,导弹的弹头和弹体是分开运载的,因此,一枚“东风”-5B需要两辆运载车在直观上就反映出了“东风”-5B体积之巨大。这种差别其实是由不同的发射方式造成的,“东风”-41可以通过发射车实施陆基机动发射,而“东风”-5B则是固定在发射井中发射的,此外,“东风”-31AG和“东风”-41采用的是固体燃料发动机,而“东风”-5B则是一种液体燃料火箭,平时,其导弹部队的导弹基地和弹头基地一般是分开部署的,这样的目的是为了隐蔽。

“One of the biggest differences between Dongfeng-5B and Dongfeng-41 is that there are no launchers on the vehicle and the missile is directly exposed. In addition, the warheads and projectiles of the missile are carried separately, so a" easterly "-5B needs two carriers to reflect intuitively the size of Dongfeng-5B. This difference is actually caused by different modes of launch," Dongfeng "-41 can carry out land-based motorized launches through launching vehicles, and "Dongfeng "-5B is fired in launching wells fixedly, in addition," Dongfeng "-31AG and" Dongfeng "-41 use solid fuel engines, while "Dongfeng "-5B is a liquid fuel, and the missile base and warhead base of its missile forces are normally deployed separately for concealment purposes.

  从目前弹道导弹的发射趋势来看,以“东风”-41为代表的固体燃料弹道导弹以其易贮藏,体积小结构简单的特点,获得了生存能力和反应能力方面的极大优势,因而在新一代弹道导弹中能看到的基本都是固体燃料导弹的身影。而“东风”-5B这样的液体导弹需要在发射前加注燃料,发射准备时间较长,还限制了该导弹的机动化发展和部署,只能在固定导弹井内发射,其缺陷比较明显。

Judging from the current launching trend of ballistic missiles, the solid-fuel ballistic missiles represented by \"Dongfeng \"-41 have acquired great advantages in survival and reaction ability because of their easy storage and simple small structure, so they are basically solid-fuel missiles in the new generation of ballistic missiles. And liquid missiles such as \"Dongfeng \"-5B need to be fueled before launching, the launch preparation time is longer, but also limit the mobile development and deployment of the missile, can only be fired in the fixed missile well, its defects are relatively obvious.

  但“东风”-5B也有其独特的优势,其推力和有效载荷都要更大,因此射程和威力也都更大些,尽管二次打击能力较机动部署式导弹弱,但对于一个大国的合理而言,其洲际射程打击覆盖范围和机动性的优势同等重要。而随着导弹新材料、特种燃料和实现燃料优化控制的计算机技术的发展,液体导弹也逐步克服了一些固有缺陷,“东风”-5B在性能上的进步就是明证,而我国正在研制的“东风”-5B的后序型号“东风”5C,可以同时携带10个分导式单头,打击能力和突防能力有了进一步提升。因此,相当长一段时间内,“东风”-5B将与“东风”-41导弹搭配使用,全面构筑起我国战略打击力量体系的新篇章。

However, Dongfeng-5B also has its unique advantages, with its greater thrust and payload, and therefore its greater range and power, although its secondary strike capability is weaker than that of a mobile deployment, but its intercontinental range strike coverage and maneuverability are equally important for the reasonableness of a large country. And with the development of new materials, special fuel and computer technology to realize the optimal control of fuel, liquid missile has gradually overcome some inherent defects, as evidenced by the improvement of the performance of \"Dongfeng \"-5B, which is being developed in our country,\" Dongfeng \"-5B rear-order model\" Dongfeng \"5C, which can carry 10 sub-guide single heads at the same time. Therefore, for a considerable period of time,\" Dongfeng \"-5B will be used in conjunction with \"Dongfeng \"-41 missiles to build a new chapter in China's strategic strike force system.